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杨金秀-缅甸华人的缩影

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发表于 2017-7-25 23:13:52 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
MUSE, Myanmar — She was born to royalty in British colonial Burma, but rejected that life to become a cross-dressing warlord whose C.I.A.-supplied army established opium trade routes across the Golden Triangle. By the time of her death, last week at 90, she had led hundreds of men, endured prison and torture, generated gossip for her relationship with a film actress and, finally, helped forge a truce between ethnic rebels and the government.

缅甸木姐——她出生于英国殖民统治时期的缅甸皇室,但她拒绝那种生活,成为女扮男装的军阀,她的军队得到CIA的补给,在金三角地区建立了鸦片贸易路线。上周,她以90岁高龄去世。她曾领导成百上千人,经受牢狱之苦和酷刑,她与一名女电影演员的关系曾引发流言蜚语,最终,她帮助少数民族叛军和政府达成停火协议。

Olive Yang grew up as one of 11 children in an ethnic Chinese family of hereditary rulers of what was then the semiautonomous Shan state of Kokang. According to relatives, she wore boys’ clothes, refused to bind her feet and frequently fell in love with her brothers’ romantic interests.

杨金秀出身半自治的果敢掸邦华裔少数民族世袭统治家族,有10个兄弟姐妹。据亲戚们说,她爱穿男孩的衣服,拒绝裹脚,经常爱上兄弟们的心仪对象。

Concerned about their unconventional daughter, her parents arranged for her to marry a younger cousin. Shortly after she became pregnant, archives show, she left her husband to pursue a life among opium-trafficking bandits. Her son, Duan Jipu — named for the American jeeps Ms. Yang had seen in the Chinese city of Kunming during World War II — was raised by other family members.

她的父母为这个不遵循传统的女儿担忧,把她嫁给了一个表弟。档案显示,她怀孕后不久就离开了丈夫,在走私鸦片的土匪中寻找新的生活。她的儿子段吉普是亲戚们养大的,这个名字来自杨金秀根二战期间在中国昆明市看到的美国吉普。
Ms. Yang’s pursuit of a career as a militia leader and opium smuggler grew in part out of her desperation to escape traditional gender roles, her relatives said. “It was a temptation she couldn’t resist,” wrote her niece Jackie Yang in “House of Yang,” a family history published in 1997.

她的亲戚们称,杨金秀追求军事领袖和鸦片走私事业的一个原因是她渴望摆脱传统的性别角色。“那是她无法拒绝的诱惑,”她的侄女杰姬·杨(Jackie Yang)在1997年出版的家族史书《杨氏家族》(House of Yang)一书中写道。

By age 25, she commanded hundreds of soldiers guarding caravans of raw opium on mules and trucks across the hills to the Thai border. Those trade routes served what would eventually become the world’s most productive opium-growing region, supplying raw ingredients for the heroin that was trafficked across the United States and Europe.

杨金秀25岁时,指挥成百上千名士兵守卫装载鸦片原料的骡子和车队,翻山越岭,赶往泰国边境。这些贸易路线所服务的鸦片产地最终成为世界上产量最高的生产区,为海洛因提供原料,产品走私到美国与欧洲。

Ms. Yang partnered with remnants of the Chinese Nationalist troops who had been defeated by Mao’s Communists but continued to fight from havens in Burma. Intelligence dispatches at the National Archives in Yangon described her as a menace to the peace.

一些国民党残余部队被毛泽东领导的共产党打败后,继续在缅甸的避难所战斗,杨金秀曾与他们合作。仰光国家档案馆的情报文件称她是对和平的威胁。

The Nationalist troops had won support from the C.I.A. because of their shared interest in stemming the spread of communism during the early stages of the Cold War. The covert plan, called Operation Paper, included an agreement by which American weapons were airlifted to Southeast Asia using planes owned by the C.I.A., Alfred W. McCoy wrote in his 1972 book, “The Politics of Heroin,’’ as the Nationalists and Ms. Yang’s troops financed their operations through opium sales.

这些国民党军队获得了CIA的支持,因为在冷战初期,他们都想阻止共产主义的蔓延。阿尔弗雷德·W·麦科伊(Alfred W. McCoy)在1972年的《海洛因政治》(The Politics of Heroin)一书中写道,一个名为行动文件(Operation Paper)的秘密计划中包括一项协议:CIA用自己的飞机把美国的武器空运至东南亚,国民党和杨金秀的军队通过销售鸦片为他们的行动提供资金。

The C.I.A.-supplied arms found their way into Ms. Yang’s hands in 1952, as documented by the Burmese government in a complaint submitted at the United Nations General Assembly the following year. Ms. Yang’s army was observed traveling across the border to an airfield in Thailand, where an unmarked C-47 aircraft arriving from Taiwan, the seat of the Chinese Nationalist government, was reported to have unloaded weapons.

根据缅甸政府1953年向联合国大会提交的投诉,1952年CIA提供的武器落到了杨金秀手中。杨金秀的军队被观察到穿过边境,来到泰国的一个机场,据说一架来自台湾,没有标识的C-47飞机在那里卸下军火。台湾是国民党政府的所在地。

Shortly thereafter, Ms. Yang was intercepted by the Burmese authorities while traveling by car from the Thai border with her deputy, Lo Hsing Han. She spent five years in prison in Mandalay, on charges that she helped Chinese Nationalist soldiers illegally cross the border into Burma. It was the first of many imprisonments for Ms. Yang and Mr. Lo.

不久后,杨金秀和副手罗兴汉乘车从泰国边境返回缅甸时,电话遭缅甸当局窃听。她被指控帮助国民党士兵非法入境,在曼德勒的监狱里关了五年。那是杨金秀和罗兴汉第一次入狱,之后他们又多次入狱。

Mr. Lo would go on to earn the designation “kingpin of the heroin traffic in Southeast Asia,” by United States drug enforcement officials, after striking a deal with the Burmese military government that allowed him to resume trading in opium in return for assisting government forces against rebel forces.

后来,罗兴汉与缅甸军政府达成协议,军政府允许他继续从事鸦片贸易,换取他支持政府军打击叛军,他后来被美国缉毒官员称为“东南亚海洛因贸易轴心”。

After her older brother Edward abdicated in 1959, along with dozens of other hereditary rulers in Shan state, Ms. Yang took control of his former army, becoming the de facto ruler of the territory. She also, according to her relatives, entered into a relationship with a Burmese movie actress, Wah Wah Win Shwe, lavishing her with gifts and adding her name to the deed of her house in Yangon.

1959年,哥哥杨振材和掸邦的其他几十位世袭统治者退位后,杨金秀控制了哥哥从前的军队,成为该地区的实际统治者。据亲戚们称,杨金秀还和缅甸女电影演员瓦瓦温瑞(Wah Wah Win Shwe)有过恋爱关系,慷慨地送了她很多礼物,还把她的名字加到自己仰光豪宅的房契上。

Ms. Yang’s family considered them a couple, though in an interview in 2015, Ms. Win Shwe, who still lived in a house on Ms. Yang’s former property, denied an affair. In any case, the arrangement came to an abrupt end in 1963, when Ms. Yang was arrested by police officials under Gen. Ne Win, who had seized power in Burma the year before. She spent six years in Yangon’s Insein Prison, where she reportedly endured torture.

杨金秀的家人认为她们是情侣,不过瓦瓦温瑞2015年接受采访时予以否认——她依然住在杨金秀从前地产上的一座房子里。不管怎样,1963年,两人的协议突然结束,杨金秀被之前一年攫取缅甸政权的奈温(Ne Win)将军手下的警察逮捕。她在仰光的永盛监狱里关了六年,据说,她在那里遭受了酷刑。

Her career took another turn in 1989, when she was in her 60s. Retired as a warlord but respected among the ethnic rebel groups, Ms. Yang was recruited by the Burmese government’s chief of intelligence, Khin Nyunt, along with her former colleague Mr. Lo, to help negotiate peace agreements for the government. The agreement struck with Ms. Yang’s distant relative Peng Jiasheng and his Kokang rebel force, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army, largely held until new fighting broke out in 2009.

1989年,60多岁的杨金秀再次迎来事业转机。当时,她已经不再做军阀,但依然受到少数民族叛军尊敬,她和前同事罗兴汉被缅甸政府的军情局局长钦纽(Khin Nyunt)招募,帮助政府协商和平协议。这项协议是与杨金秀的远亲彭家声及其果敢叛军缅甸民族民主同盟军(Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army)达成,总体上维持到了2009年,之后爆发了新的战争。

Confined to a wheelchair, Ms. Yang spent her twilight years in relative obscurity, living in the care of her stepson and his militiamen in a compound in Muse. Visited there not long after she had a stroke in 2015, Ms. Yang said she was happy to be living surrounded by deferential soldiers. When shown a photograph of Ms. Win Shwe at her home, Ms. Yang responded with a knowing smile and a devilish laugh. With a Chinese cigarette in her hand, she said, “That whole property was mine.”

杨金秀晚年只能坐轮椅,过着相对默默无闻的生活,她住在木姐的大宅子里,由继子及其手下民兵照顾。2015年,她中风后不久接受采访时表示,她很喜欢被恭顺的士兵围绕。我们给她看温瑞在她家里拍的照片,她以会意的微笑和顽皮的大笑回应。她手拿一支中国香烟,说:“那整个产业都是我的。”

Ms. Yang, who died on July 13, is survived by two younger sisters and her son. None of her immediate relatives remain in Kokang. Ms. Yang’s eventual tomb, built for her with the help of one of her former soldiers, stands near Muse, just outside Kokang.

杨金秀于7月13日去世,她在世的亲人包括两个妹妹和儿子。她的近亲都不住在果敢。杨金秀最终的墓地是她从前的一名士兵帮助建造的,位于果敢外的木姐附近。

“It’s very sad for all of Kokang,” said the former soldier, Liu Guoxi, reached by phone as he was preparing for the funeral. “We have all come to say farewell to our leader.”

“对整个果敢来说,这是一件非常悲伤的事,”前士兵刘国熹(音)在接受电话采访时表示。他正在为葬礼做准备。“我们都来跟领袖告别。”


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发表于 2017-7-26 23:33:39 | 显示全部楼层

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 楼主| 发表于 2017-7-26 23:45:11 | 显示全部楼层
应该是女同性恋中的A角。
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发表于 2017-7-28 10:26:45 | 显示全部楼层
我去,生在中国岂不是。。。。。
笑看清风明月,不忧世事沧桑。
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发表于 2017-7-29 16:33:23 | 显示全部楼层
追求法治,而是人治。否则就会有更多的奇葩男女
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发表于 昨天 08:48 | 显示全部楼层

草民兄 早,早出晚归,多注意身体
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